Brief History Of The Universe, The Big Bang

1. The Planck time: 10-43 seconds. After this time gravity can be considered to be a classical background in which particles and fields evolve following quantum mechanics. A region about 10-33 cm across is homogeneous and isotropic, The temperature is T=1032K.

2. Inflation begins. In Linde’s chaotic inflation model inflation starts at the Planck time, although it could start when the temperature falls to point at which the symmetry of Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is spontaneously broken. This occurs when the temperature is around 1027 to 1028K at 10-35 seconds after the Big Bang.

3. Inflation ends. The time is 10-33 seconds, the temperature is again 1027 to 1028K as the vacuum energy density that drove inflation is converted into heat. At the end of inflation the expansion rate is so fast that the apparent age of the Universe [1/H] is only 10-35 seconds. Because of inflation, the homogeneous regions from the Planck time are at least 100 cm across, a growth by a factor greater than 1035 since the Planck time. However, quantum fluctuations during inflation also create a pattern of low amplitude inhomogeneities with a random pattern having equal power on all scale

4. Baryogenesis: a small difference between the reaction rates for matter and antimatter leads to a mix with about 100,000,001 protons for every 100,000,000 antiprotons (and 100,000,000 photons).

5. Universe grows and cools until 0.0001 seconds after the Big Bang with temperature about T=1013 K. Antiprotons annihilate with protons leaving only matter, but with a very large number of photons per surviving proton and neutron.

6. Universe grows and cools until 1 second after the Big Bang, with temperature T=1010 K. The weak interaction freezes out with a proton/neutron ratio of about 6. The homogeneous patch is now at least 1019.5 cm across.

7. Universe grows and cools until 100 seconds after the Big Bang. The temperature is 1 billion degrees, 109 K. Electrons and positrons annihilate to make more photons, while protons and neutrons combine to make deuterons. Almost all of the deuterons combine to make helium. The final result is about 3/4 hydrogen, 1/4 helium by mass; deuteron/proton ratio 30 parts per million. There are about 2 billion photons per proton or neutron.

8. One month after the Big Bang the processes that convert the radiation field to a blackbody spectrum become slower than the expansion of the Universe, so the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) preserves information back to this time.

9. Matter density equals radiation density 56,000 years after the Big Bang. The temperature is 9000 K. Dark matter inhomogeneities can start to collapse.

10. Protons and electrons combine to form neutral hydrogen. Universe becomes transparent. Temperature is T=3000 K, time is 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Ordinary matter can now fall into the dark matter clumps. The CMB travels freely from this time until now, so the CMB anisotropy gives a picture of the Universe at this time.

11. The first stars form 100-200 million years after the Big Bang, and reionize the Universe.

12. The first supernovae explode and spread carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron, and so on up through uranium throughout the Universe.

13. Galaxies form as many clumps of dark matter, stars and gas merge together.

14. Clusters of galaxies form.

15. The Solar System and Sun form 4.6 billion years ago.

16. Now The time is 13.7 Gyr after the Big Bang, and the temperature is T=2.725 K. The homogeneous patch is at least 1029 cm across, which is larger than observable Universe.

Twitter Introduced Search Autocomplete And Search Within People You Follow

Twitter has introduced new search features.

  • Search Autocomplete And
  • Search Within People You Follow

In addition to recent updates to searching feature these two new features would be making twitter search more complete by putting you closer to what you are looking for.

Search Autocomplete displays a dropdown set of like keywords while you enter them in the search box. It is more useful if you are searching any topic with hash-tag.

Following list gives a brief introduction to new features. List was released by Twitter with its new search update:

  • Spelling corrections: If you misspell a term, we’ll automatically show results for your intended query.
  • Related suggestions: If you search for a topic for which people use multiple terms, we will provide relevant suggestions for terms where the majority of that conversation is happening on Twitter.
  • Results with real names and usernames: When you search for a name like ‘Jeremy Lin,’ you’ll see results mentioning that person’s real name and their Twitter account username.
  • Results from people you follow: In addition to seeing ‘All’ or ‘Top’ Tweets for your search, you can also now see Tweets about a given topic from only the people you follow when you select the ‘People you follow’ view. Viewing Tweets about a topic from just the people you follow is a great way to find useful information and join the conversation.

Here are some tweets showing how people reacted on this new feature:

Features of related search suggestions, search autocomplete and spelling corrections are also available in Twitter for iPhone and Android.

Should I Change My Mind For New Samsung Galaxy Note Sporting 5.5 Inch Screen

I am not sure whether I should change my mind for Samsung’s new Galaxy Note sporting 5.5 inch screen. It is inconvenient for holding in one hand or against your face but size doesn’t matter if the stuff you carry makes you to keep other stuff aside. Likewise hanging a laptop on you shoulder, holding a tablet in your hand and still keeping a mobile in your pocket is a bad idea.

Nexus 7 is not a subject related to failure of Google Plus. Google Plus was better than Facebook, it was well integrated, fast and really open (unlike to Facebook) but it failed because it was not having critical mass that Facebook already gained. Same thing happened with Facebook’s Email service. This time Facebook was lacking critical mass unlike to Gmail. But quoting this we cannot say that Facebook’s Email service was bad or Google don’t know how to work with social networking.

Nexus 7 and Samsung’s new Galaxy Note both works on Android 4.1 Jelly Bean. But I suppose Google knows better working with Android than Samsung.  Samsung was only Android’s marketing vehicle before the existence Nexus 7.

Android is Google’s baby that Google adopted keeping in mind all his services that is why using Android in any machine prompts you to login with your Google Account so that you can get connected with Google services and hence connecting & using Google account becomes most useful and important activity on any Android machine. I have used other Android machines and a few of them like Sony Ericsson Xperia fail to connect with Google account and you get confused between hardware and software conflicts. So why not use Nexus 7 where everything comes to Google and using Google’s machine for Android is a better option as it would be working better than anything else.  So I’ll be waiting till October for Nexus 7 release in India.

Best WordPress Plugin On Chat, Cache, Feed Syndication, Page Navigation & Sharing

Best Chat Plugin: Envolve Chat

Envolve chat is a customizable chat toolbar for your website.

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Best Cache Plugin: W3 Total Cache

Improve site performance and user experience via caching: browser, page, object, database, minify and content delivery network support.

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Best Plugin To Syndicate Feeds to Post: FeedWordPress

FeedWordPress is an Atom/RSS aggregator for WordPress. It syndicates content from feeds that you choose into your WordPress weblog; the content it syndicates appears as a series of special posts in your WordPress posts database.

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Best Sharing Plugin: Shareholic

Adds an attractive social bookmarking menu and related content widget to your posts, pages, index, or any combination of the three.

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Best Page Navigation Plugin: WP-PageNavi

Replaces Older Posts & Newer Posts with more advanced paging navigation interface of page numbers.

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Social Crawlytics – Free Social Sharing Analysis Tool

Social Crawlytics is free service used to scan website and provide reports on each page for all  major social networks.

They give you there plans out of which two are free and for the third plan which is for super large websites they ask you two contact them for information. As shown in the given image:

Start by logging-in with your Twitter Account. Click Login With Twitter.

It will ask for your permission to authorize Social Crawlytics to use your account. Authorize the app and you will be redirected automatically to your Social Crawlytics Dashboard.

Now enter the URL you want to analyze, click SUBMIT, follow few more steps and get statistical overview of progress of your articles which have fared across Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Delicious, Google+ and Stumbleupon.

Using Google To Search Within A Specific Website

You may use Google to search certain keywords within a specific website. This can be done by writing Site: followed by website’s address and Keywords which you like to search. For Example:

If you want to search Extinction List in Sangkrit.Net : –

Site:sangkrit.net Extinction List

  • Press Enter

Where Site: is used as a prefix. sangkrit.net is the name of the site. and Extinction List is the keyword you are searching for.

Google Can Convert Currencies

You may use Google for converting currencies. For Example :-

If you want to convert 500 Rupees to US Dollar :-

500 INR in USD

  • Press Enter

This would display the converted amount : –

500 Indian rupees = 9.10100 U.S. dollars

In the same way you can convert USD to YEN, EUR to INR etc.etc.

Largest Possible Market Awaits Nexus 7

I am planning to buy Nexus 7 and wait till its India launch instead of buying Apple i-pad-3 now. I have not mentioned any other device as I expect Steve Jobs integrity effect out of Nexus 7 as well. Although Google can do much better by more collaborative approach to India up to the extent of collaborating with Universal Free Education System.

India could be more than welcoming to Nexus 7 as its largest possible market, if retail price remain below INR 10,000 in tie up with some telecom companies and device facilitates free homeschooling in local language. Moreover an exchange offer for old device of user with Internet time may bring additional wonder. Almost everybody out of this largest growing mobile market may then buy Nexus 7.

Injustice Exposed Is Injustice Defeated

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Injustice exposed is injustice defeated.

___________Wikileaks

Facebook Introduced App Center

I just logged in my Facebook account and got a notification “Introducing App Center” on side bar. I clicked it and now I can see a left sidebar showing category group of ALL, WEB & Mobile followed by a list of different categories:

  • Games
  • Entertainment
  • Facebook
  • Lifestyle
  • Music ‘
  • News
  • Photos & Videos
  • Sports
  • Travel & Local
  • Utilities
  • Requests

You must be knowing about each category and what it stands for as Facebook Apps are not new, only App Center is development.
Now I come to header which is showing two blocks on top left corner with these names:

  • Mobile Apps
  • Timeline Apps

Top Right corner of header shows random adds of different apps.

Body section shows two columns:

  • Suggested Apps (left column) Personalized app suggestions for you.
  • Friends’ Apps (right column) Apps that your friends have used recently.

After I scrolled a little I can see a menu of The highest rated and most used apps as follws:

  • Top Rated
  • Trending
  • Top Grossing

After moving back to home I can see icon of App Center in apps menu on left sidebar under groups and favorite section.

First Major Worm To Have A Political Message

WANK stands for stands for “Worms Against Nuclear Killers”

As documented by Julian Assange: Hacktivism is at least as old as October 1989 when DOE, HEPNET and SPAN (NASA) connected VMS machines world wide were penetrated by the anti-nuclear WANK worm. WANK penetrated machines had their login screens altered to:

   W O R M S    A G A I N S T    N U C L E A R    K I L L E R S
 _______________________________________________________________
 __  ____________  _____    ________    ____  ____   __  _____/
        /    / /    / /        |    | |    | | / /    /
       /    / /    / /__       | |  | |    | |/ /    /
      / / / /    / ______      | |  | |    | |    /
     _  /__  /____/ /______ ____| |__ | |____| |_ _/
      ___________________________________________________/
                                                        /
            Your System Has Been Officially WANKed     /
         _____________________________________________/

  You talk of times of peace for all, and then prepare for war.

Whether Julian Did This To Calm Down US ?

Timing of WikiLeaks’ release on Syria shows some smart move as anonymous comments on thenextweb.com saying “Now what will probably happen is the US will want to put a medal on Julian’s neck rather than try to lynch him.” Whatever may be the reason but opening up the governments is always welcome and being smart is equally important in surviving through the battles for freedom.